Volcanoes are a common geological phenomenon. 100 to 150 kilometers below the earth's crust, there is a "liquid zone", in which there is a molten silicate material containing gas volatile components under high temperature and high pressure, that is, magma.
Volcanoes form as soon as it rushes out of the surface from a weak section of the Earth's crust.
There are 3 types of volcanoes, "active volcanoes", "extinct volcanoes" and "dormant volcanoes". Volcanoes are windows to the fiery core of the Earth, the most explosive forces on Earth, ejecting a variety of substances when they erupt. Here are five of the world's most famous volcanoes.
1. Nyiragongo Volcano
Nyiragongo is one of the best-known volcanoes in Africa. At an altitude of 3469m, it is an active volcano in the Virunga Volcano Group in central Africa and one of the most dangerous volcanoes in Africa.
The crater of Nyiragongo Volcano is 2000 meters in diameter and 244 meters deep, with a lava platform and lava lake at the bottom. Over the past 150 years, there have been more than 50 eruptions.
Despite its potential danger, it is attractive to the population due to its surrounding fertile volcanic soil and proximity to lakes. Violent eruptions occurred in 1948, 1972, 1975, 1977, 1986, and 2002. Among them, the volcanic eruption in January 1977 killed about 2,000 people in nearly half an hour.
2. Mount Etna
Mount Etna is an active volcano in the Virunga Mountains in east-central Africa, within the volcanic zone of the Virunga National Park in Congo, near the border with Uganda. Mount Etna is 3,469 meters above sea level, the crater has a maximum diameter of 2 kilometers (1.3 miles) and a depth of about 250 meters (820 feet), which contains a lava lake.
The 2002 eruption of the volcano left nearly 100,000 residents homeless and destroyed 80 percent of the buildings and infrastructure in the city of Goma.
3. Mount Vesuvius
A violent eruption of Vesuvius in AD 79 destroyed the ancient city of Pompeii, which was home to more than 20,000 people at the time. It was not until the middle of the 18th century that archaeologists excavated the ancient city of Pompeii from several meters of volcanic ash.
The ancient buildings and bodies of different postures were well preserved, and the ancient city of Pompeii became a famous tourist destination in Italy.
The years of major eruptions were 1660, 1682, 1694, 1698, 1707, 1737, 1760, 1767, 1779, 1794, 1822, 1834, 1839, 1850, 1855, 1861, 1868, 1872, 1906, and 1944. The length of each eruptive period ranges from 6 months to 30.75 years, and the stationary period ranges from 18 months to 7.5 years.
In July 2017, wildfires broke out in many places in southern Italy, and the famous Mount Vesuvius also burst into flames, with thick smoke billowing from the hillside.
4. Kilauea Volcano
Kilauea Volcano is in the southeastern part of the island of Hawaii in the United States of America. It is one of the largest and most spectacular craters worldwide. It is an active volcano that has not stopped erupting since 1983.
There is a huge caldera on the top of the mountain with a diameter of 4027 meters and a depth of more than 130 meters, which has many craters.
5. Mount Aso
In Japan, there is a famous active volcano, Mount Aso. Mount Aso is in the northeastern part of Kumamoto Prefecture, Kyushu Island, it is a symbol of Kumamoto and is famous for its complex volcano with a large caldera.
Modern Mount Aso was formed by four large-scale volcanic eruptions about 270,000 years ago, 140,000 years ago, 120,000 years ago, and 90,000 years ago. On November 27, 2014, in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan, Japan's largest active volcano, Mount Aso, erupted a large amount of ash, reaching a height of 1,500 meters, and more than 30 nearby flights were forced to cancel.