There are four main types of excavator classification.
1. According to the driving mode, there are two kinds of excavators: internal combustion engine driven excavators and electric driven excavators.
2. According to the different ways of walking, excavators can be divided into crawler excavators and wheel excavators.
3. According to the different transmission methods, excavators can be divided into hydraulic excavators and mechanical excavators.
Mechanical excavators are mainly used in some large mines.
4. According to the use, excavators can be divided into different categories such as general excavators, mining excavators, marine excavators and special excavators.
In 1951, the first fully hydraulic backhoe excavator was launched by the Poclain (Poclain) factory in France, and the manufacturer Case - the pioneer of crawler and wheel excavators.
Thus, a whole new space was created in the field of excavator technology development.
After the 1940s, hydraulic technology was applied to excavators, and due to the maturity of external technology, the crawler-type fully hydraulic excavators, which are commonly used today, were developed in the 1950s.
The three most important parameters of an excavator: overall weight (mass), engine power and bucket capacity of the bucket.
The excavator has the following main roles.
1. Backhoe operation
Backhoe operation is generally carried out below the ground, mainly by digging.
(1) Use the bucket rod and bucket together for digging.
When the bucket hydraulic cylinder and the connecting rod, bucket rod hydraulic cylinder and bucket rod are at an angle of 90°, the maximum digging force and digging efficiency can be obtained.
(2) Try to make the direction of bucket teeth consistent with the digging direction to reduce the digging resistance and the amount of bucket teeth wear.
2. Positive shovel operation
Forward shovel operation is usually carried out above the ground, and the bucket rotates in the opposite way to the backhoe.
The bucket rod hydraulic cylinder is used to scrape the ground.
The digging force of the front shovel is less than that of the backhoe.
3. Trenching operation
Trenching can be performed efficiently by configuring the bucket to correspond to the width of the trench so that the tracks on both sides are parallel to the side line of the trench to be dug.
When digging a wide trench, the sides are dug first and the middle part is dug last.
4. Loading operation
When loading, the excavator should be moved to the back of the loading truck first to avoid the bucket touching the truck cab or other people when turning.
It is easier to load at the back of the truck than at the side of the truck.
When loading, it is more convenient to load from front to back, and the loading capacity is large.
5. Level the ground
(1) Fill and level the ground first, and move the bucket back and forth in a horizontal manner.
(2) When the excavator moves, don't use the way of pressing or shoveling to level the ground.
(3) Level the ground from the front of the excavator forward, then gently pull the bucket bar and slowly raise the moving arm.
When the bucket bar exceeds the vertical position, first lower the moving arm with a small opening and then operate the machine so that the bucket moves in a horizontal manner.